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You are here: Home / Project Documents / Documents / Volta Basin TDA V7.pdf

Volta Basin TDA V7.pdf

Volta Basin Transboundary Diagnostic Analysis viii GEF-Volta GEF- Addressing Transboundary Concerns in the Volta River Basin and its Downstream Coastal Area List of tables Table 3.1: Land area of Volta Basin and respective countries Table 3.2: Regions lying in the Basin and administrative hierarchy Table 3.3: Basic data on elevation across the basin Table 3.4: Identified soil groups in the basin Table 3.5: Basic climate data over previous decades, illustrating tendencies towards climate change in Togo Table 3.6: Runoff (mm) at stations on the sub-basins of the Volta Table 3.7: Hydrogeological characteristics of the basin in Ghana Table 3.8: Transboundary Groundwater in the Volta Basin Table 3.9: Shared groundwater basins Table 3.10: White Volta groundwater quality Table 3.11: White Volta surface water quality Table 3.12: Volta Basin Ramsar sites Table 3.13: Number of species, for each family, in each country Table 3.14: Endangered species in north and central Burkina Faso Table 3.15: Overview of endangered and endemic species in Mali Table 3.16: List of endangered species in Togo Table 3.17: Overview of ecosystem services and functions (adapted from Costanza et al, 1997) Table 4.1: GNP figures across the region in 2009 Table 4.2: HDI and poverty figures across the region Table 4.3: Sectors contributing to GDP in Burkina Faso, and recent trends Table 4.4: Population and trends across the basin Table 4.5: Projected water use rate of towns/cities per country in the Volta basin Table 4.6: Projected irrigable lands for rice cultivation and associated water use rate per irrigation site in the Volta Basin Table 4.7: Projected annual livestock water use rate per country in the Volta Basin Table 4.8: Synthesis of water abstraction form surface & ground waters by types of usage Table 4.9: Growth in Togolese production of cocoa and coffee Table 4.10: Irrigation potential and water requirements by sub-basin in the Volta Basin in Burkina Faso Table 4.11: Volta basin: irrigation potential and water requirements (national part of the Volta basin) Table 4.12: Projected growth in livestock numbers (Burkina Faso) Table 4.13: Livestock numbers for the Malian part of the Basin Table 4.14: Forecasted livestock numbers in Togo Table 4.15: Summary details of hydro sites on the main tributaries of the Volta in Ghana Table 4.16: Mining potential of the Volta Basin in Burkina Faso Table 5.1: Summary of major national policies, strategies and legislative frameworks Table 5.2: Summary table of the VBA’s strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats Table 5.3: Summary of key national institutions responsible for water and environmental management in the riparian countries of the Volta Basin Table 5.4: Typology of major players in the Volta Basin Table 6.1: List of main invasive species in Burkina Faso Table 6.2: Mean annual suspended sediment load and specific suspended sediment yield for the Volta River Basin system in Ghana Table 6.3: Summary of policy and legislative constraints Table 6.4: Summary of institutional constraints Volta Basin Transboundary Diagnostic Analysis 19 20 20 23 30 34 36 39 39 44 45 50 53 55 55 56 62 66 67 68 70 72 73 77 77 79 80 80 81 81 81 83 86 95 101 105 107 122 124 133 134 ix GEF-Volta GEF- Addressing Transboundary Concerns in the Volta River Basin and its Downstream Coastal Area List of figures Figure 1.1: Map of the Volta Basin showing main sub-basins Figure 2.1: Overview of the Volta Basin TDA process Figure 3.1: Relief of the Volta River Basin Figure 3.2: Major geological units in the Volta Basin Figure 3.3: Types of soils in the Volta River Basin Figure 3.4a: Average Volta River Basin climate Figure 3.4b: Average annual rainfall evolution (Period 1960-2000) Figure 3.5: Seasonal and Perennial Rivers in the Basin Figure 3.6: Hydrological regime of the Volta River Basin Figure 3.7: Hydrogeological map of the Volta Basin Figure 3.8: Water budget in the basin’s three climatic zones Figure 3.9: Kéran’s gallery forest (Togo) Figure 3.10: Mammals in the Pendjari reserve in Benin Figure 4.1: GDP’s across the region, 1960 - 2009 Figure 4.2: Drinking water supply in the Volta River Basin Figure 4.3: Water abstraction for irrigation in the Volta River Basin Figure 4.4: Location of the main dams in the basin Figure 5.1: Organisation chart of the VBA executive board Figure 6.1: Schematic presentation of the problem analysis framework Figure 6.2: Schematic presentation of the various levels of analysis in the problem trees Figure 6.3: Examples of coastal erosion in the Volta Basin downstream area in Ghana (left) and Togo (right) Figure 6.4: Water Hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) has colonised lakes in Togo Figure 6.5: Areas of the basin suffering most from loss of vegetative cover Volta Basin Transboundary Diagnostic Analysis 12 18 21 22 24 27 28 32 35 37 41 48 54 67 74 75 90 100 113 114 120 122 127 x GEF-Volta GEF- Addressing Transboundary Concerns in the Volta River Basin and its Downstream Coastal Area 1. Volta Basin Transboundary Diagnostic Analysis 152 GEF-Volta GEF- Addressing Transboundary Concerns in the Volta River Basin and its Downstream Coastal Area 7.4.2 Annex D.2: Tables of threatened fauna Annex D.2.1: Threatened fauna (terrestrial vertebrates): Mammals Species Alcelaphus buselaphus Cephalophus dorsalis Cephalophus maxwellii Cephalophus monticola Cephalophus niger Cephalophus rufilatus Cephalophus sylvicultor Damaliscus korrigum Eudorcas rufifrons Hippotragus equinus Kobus ellipsiprymnus Kobus kob Ourebia ourebi Redunca redunca Oryx algazella Addax nasomaculatus Sylvicapra grimmia Syncerus caffer Tragelaphus eurycerus Tragelaphus scriptus Tragelaphus spekii Phacochoerus africanus Potamochoerus porcus Lycaon pictus Acinonyx jubatus Caracal caracal Panthera leo Panthera pardus Crocuta crocuta Civettictis civetta Genetta thierryi Nandinia binotata Manis gigantea Erythrocebus patas Chlorocebus aethiops Cercopithecus torquata Cercopithecus diana Cercopithecus mona Cercopithecus nictitans Cercopithecus petaurista Colobus polykomos Colobus vellerosus Papio anubis Procolobus verus Galago senegalensis Galagoides demidoff Pan troglodytes Loxodonta africana Hystrix cristata Orycteropus afer Finisciurus leucogenys Finisciurus substriatus Anomalurus beecrofti IUCN Status LC VU LC VU LC LC LC LC VU LC LC LC LC LC EN EN LC LC NT LC LC LC LC EN VU LC VU NT LC LC LC LC VU LC LC LC VU LC VU EN VU VU LC LC LC LC CR VU NT LC EN EN VU Volta Basin Transboundary Diagnostic Analysis Bénin x Burkina Faso x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x Côte d’Ivoire x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x Ghana Mali Togo x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x 153 GEF-Volta GEF- Addressing Transboundary Concerns in the Volta River Basin and its Downstream Coastal Area IUCN Status Anomalurus derbianus EN Cryptomys zechi EN Source : UNEP-GEF Volta Project, 2011e Species Bénin Burkina Faso x Côte d’Ivoire x Ghana Mali x x Togo x x Annex D.2.2: Threatened fauna (terrestrial vertebrates): Birds IUCN Status Pandion haliaetus LC Accipiter badius LC Accipiter erythropus NT Accipiter melanoleucus LC Accipiter ovampensis LC Aquila rapax LC Butastur rufipennis LC Buteo auguralis LC Buteo buteo LC Buteo rufinus NT Circaetus beaudouini LC Circus macrourus NT Gyps africanus NT Gyps fulvus NT Gyps rueppellii NT Lophaetus occipitalis LC Macheiramphus alcinus LC Milvus migrans NT LC Terathopius ecaudatus VU Torgos tracheliotus LC Sagittarius serpentarius VU Falco naumanni LC Falco alopex LC Falco ardosiaceus LC Falco vespertinus LC Agapornis pullarius LC Poicephalus senegalus VU Psittacus erithacus LC Tauraco persa LC Tyto alba LC Glaucidium perlatum LC Otus scops LC Scotopelia peli Source : UNEP-GEF Volta Project, 2011e Species Volta Basin Transboundary Diagnostic Analysis Bénin x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x Burkina Faso x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x Côte d’Ivoire x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x Ghana Mali Togo x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x 154 GEF-Volta GEF- Addressing Transboundary Concerns in the Volta River Basin and its Downstream Coastal Area Annex D.2.3: Threatened fauna (terrestrial vertebrates): Reptiles IUCN Status Kinixys belliana NT Kinixys erosa VU Kinixys homeana VU Geochelone sulcata VU Chamaeleo cristatus NT Chamaeleo gracilis NT Chamaeleo necasi NT Chamaeleo senegalensis LC Varanus exanthematicus LC Varanus niloticus LC Varanus ornatus LC Python regius LC Python sebae NT Calabaria reinhardtii VU Gongylophis muelleri LC Dendroaspis jamesoni VU Dendroaspis polylepis NT Dendroaspis viridis NT Atheris chlorechis LC Atheris squamigera NT Bitis rhinoceros VU Bitis nasicornis VU Tarentola ephippiata LC Gerrhosaurus major VU Chalcides thierryi LC Source : UNEP-GEF Volta Project, 2011e Species Volta Basin Transboundary Diagnostic Analysis Bénin x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x Burkina Faso x Côte d’Ivoire x x x Ghana Mali Togo x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x 155 GEF-Volta GEF- Addressing Transboundary Concerns in the Volta River Basin and its Downstream Coastal Area Annex D.2.4: Threatened fauna (aquatic vertebrates): Mammals Species IUCN Status Hyemoschus aquaticus Hippopotamus amphibius VU Aonyx capensis NT Lutra maculicollis NT Trichechus senegalensis CR Tursiops truncatus NT Stenella clymene NT Stenella longirostris NT Stenella attenuata NT Stenella frontalis NT Delphinus delphis NT Delphinus capensis NT Lagenodelphis hosei NT Steno bredanensis NT Grampus griseus NT Peponocephala electra NT Feresa attenuata NT Globicephala macrorhynchus NT Orcinus orca LC Pseudorca crassidens LC Kogia sima LC Physeter macrocephalus VU Ziphius cavirostris LC Sousa teuszii CR Megaptera novaeangliae LC Balaenoptera brydei NT Balaenoptera bonaerensis NT Source : UNEP-GEF Volta Project, 2011e Volta Basin Transboundary Diagnostic Analysis Bénin x x x x x x x Burkina Faso Côte d’Ivoire x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x Ghana x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x Mali x x Togo x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x 156 GEF-Volta GEF- Addressing Transboundary Concerns in the Volta River Basin and its Downstream Coastal Area Annex D.2.5: Threatened fauna (aquatic vertebrates): Waterbirds Species Sarkidiornis melanoto Pelecanus onocrotalus Pelecanus rufescens Ixobrychus minutus Ixobrychus sturmii Nycticorax nycticorax Egretta ardesiaca Egretta gularis Egretta garzetta Egretta intermedia Egretta alba Ardea purpurea Ardea cinerea Ardea melanocephala Ardea goliath Scopus umbretta Mycteria ibis Anastomus lamelligerus Ciconia nigra Ciconia abdimii Ciconia episcopus Ciconia ciconia Ephippiorhynchus senegalensis Leptoptilos crumeniferus Plegadis falcinellus Bostrychia hagedash Bostrychia rara Threskiornis aethiopica Platalea alba Phoeniconaias minor Dendrocygna bicolor Dendrocygna viduata Alopochen aegyptiacus Plectropterus gambensis Pteronetta hartlaubii Sarkidiornis melanotos Nettapus auritus Anas sparsa Anas acuta Anas querquedula Anas clypeata Aythya nyroca Aythya fuligula Balearica pavonina Haematopus ostralegus Himantopus himantopus Recurvirostra avosetta Charadrius dubius Charadrius pecuarius Charadrius alexandrinus Pluvialis dominica Pluvialis squatarola Vanellus senegallus Vanellus albiceps IUCN Status LC LC VU LC LC LC LC LC LC LC LC LC NT LC NT LC LC LC LC LC LC LC LC LC LC LC LC LC LC LC LC LC LC LC LC LC LC LC LC LC LC EN EN CR NT LC LC LC LC LC LC NT LC LC Volta Basin Transboundary Diagnostic Analysis Burkina Faso x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x Côte d’Ivoire x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x Bénin x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x Ghana Mali Togo x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x 157 GEF-Volta GEF- Addressing Transboundary Concerns in the Volta River Basin and its Downstream Coastal Area IUCN Status Vanellus tectus LC Vanellus spinosus LC Calidris canutus LC Calidris alba LC Calidris minuta LC Calidris temminckii LC Calidris ferruginea LC Calidris alpina LC Lymnocryptes minimus LC Gallinago gallinago NT Gallinago media NT Limmosa limmosa NT Limmosa lapponica NT Numenius phaeopus NT Numenius arquata NT Tringa erythropus LC Tringa totanus LC Tringa stragnatilis LC Tringa nebularia LC Tringa ochropus LC Tringa glareola LC Actitis hypoleucos LC Arenaria interpres NT Larus cirrocephalus NT Larus fuscus LC Gelochelidon nilotica LC Sterna caspia NT Sterna maxima NT Sterna sandvicensis NT Sterna dougallii NT Sterna hirundo NT Sterna balaenarum NT Sterna albifrons NT Rhyncops flavirostris NT Source : UNEP-GEF Volta Project, 2011e Species Bénin x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x Burkina Faso x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x Côte d’Ivoire x x x x x x x x Ghana Mali Togo x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x Ghana Mali Togo x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x Annex D.2.6: Threatened fauna (aquatic vertebrates): Reptiles IUCN Status Pelomedusa subrufa olivacea NT Pelusios cupulatta LC Cyclanorbis senegalensis EN Trionyx triunguis CR Caretta caretta CR Chelonia mydas EN Eretmochelys imbricata CR Lepidochelys olivacea VU Dermochelys coriacea CR Mecistops cataphractus VU Crocodylus niloticus LC Osteolaemus tetraspis VU Source : UNEP-GEF Volta Project, 2011e Species Volta Basin Transboundary Diagnostic Analysis x Burkina Faso x x x x x Bénin x x x x x x x x x Côte d’Ivoire x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x 158 GEF-Volta GEF- Addressing Transboundary Concerns in the Volta River Basin and its Downstream Coastal Area Annex D.2.7: Threatened fauna: amphibians IUCN Status Arthroleptis brevipes CR Arthroleptis poecilonotus LC Hemisus marmoratus LC Afrixalus nigeriensis LC Hyperolius baumanni LC Hyperolius sylvaticus LC Hyperolius torrentis EN Leptopelis bufonides LC Bufo pentoni LC Bufo togoensis CR Hoplobatrachus occipiatlis LC Aubria subsigillata EN Conraua derooi CR Amnirana occidentalis LC Ptychadena arnei EN Ptychadena aequiplicata EN Hildebrandtia ornata LC Source : UNEP-GEF Volta Project, 2011e Species Bénin x x x x x x x x x x Burkina Faso Côte d’Ivoire x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x Ghana x x x x x x x x x x x x x x Mali Togo x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x Annex D.2.8: Threatened fauna: freshwater and brackish water fish species IUCN Status Bargus bajad NT Bargus docmak NT Lates niloticus NT Heterobranchus longifilis NT Auchenoglanis biscutatus VU Clarotes laticeps VU Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus NT Protopterus annectens NT Denticeps clupeoïdes EN Periophthalmus barbarus VU Pantodon buchholzi VU Source : UNEP-GEF Volta Project, 2011e Species Volta Basin Transboundary Diagnostic Analysis Bénin x x x x x x x x x x x Burkina Faso x x x x x x x x Côte d’Ivoire x x x x x x x x x x Ghana Mali Togo x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x 159 GEF-Volta GEF- Addressing Transboundary Concerns in the Volta River Basin and its Downstream Coastal Area Annex D.2.9: Threatened fauna: marine fish species IUCN Burkina Côte Bénin Ghana Mali Togo Status Faso d’Ivoire Epinephelus itajara CR x x x x Epinephelus marginatus EN x x x x Mysteroperca ruba DD x x x x Xiphias gladius DD x x x x Carcharhinus galapagensi NT x x x x Carcharhinus limatus NT x x x x Carcharhinus leucas NT x x x x Carcharhinus longimanus NT x x x x Carcharhinus plumbeus NT x x x x Carcharias taurus VU x x x x Prionace glauca NT x x x x Sphyrna lewini NT x x x x Rhincodon typus VU x x x x Squatina aculeata EN x x x x Mustelus mustelus EN x x x x Isurus oxyrinchus NT x x x x Carcharodon carcharias VU x x x x Centroscymnus coelolepis NT x x x x Cetorhinus maximus VU x x x x Heptranchias perlo NT x x x x Leptocharias smithii NT x x x X Raja clavata NT x x x x Pristis microdon CR x x x x UICN Nomenclature: EX: Extinct;

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